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Dan Katz and Michael Bommarito Co-Author Groundbreaking Study "GPT-4 Passes the Bar" in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

Study published in the world's first and longest-standing scientific journal

Study published in the world's first and longest-standing scientific journal

273 Ventures’ co-founders, Dan Katz and Michael Bommarito, have published their co-authored paper “GPT-4 Passes the Bar” in the latest edition of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, themed “A complexity science approach to law and governance.”

Founded in 1665 by Henry Oldenburg, the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society stands as the world’s first and longest-running scientific journal. This pioneering platform was established to facilitate the sharing of knowledge among scientists by documenting and disseminating their discoveries. Over the centuries, the journal has played a pivotal role in the advancement of knowledge across a wide range of scientific disciplines, publishing groundbreaking papers by some of history’s most eminent scientists, including Isaac Newton, Benjamin Franklin and Charles Darwin.

This study demonstrates the capabilities of GPT-4 in tackling the Uniform Bar Examination (UBE), spanning the multiple-choice Multistate Bar Examination (MBE), the open-ended Multistate Essay Exam (MEE), and the Multistate Performance Test (MPT). The findings reveal that GPT-4 not only outperforms previous GPT models and human test-takers by achieving a 26% improvement over ChatGPT and outperforming humans in five out of seven MBE subjects but also excels in previously untested areas like the MEE and MPT with an average score of 4.2 out of 6.0.

Beyond demonstrating GPT-4’s impressive capabilities, this study reflects a significant step forward in the integration of AI into legal practice. By showcasing the rapid advancements in large language models, Katz and Bommarito illuminate the potential for AI to not only augment but also transform the delivery of legal services. Their research furthers discussion on the integration of AI technologies within the legal sector and is a call to action for the legal community to embrace AI’s potential.


The 273 Ventures team has developed the Kelvin Legal Data OS to organize and connect data from various structured and unstructured sources, including documents like contracts and briefs, timekeeping entries, and laws and rules. Kelvin ships with automation for legal-specific use cases, like due diligence and regulatory monitoring, as well as connectors for common systems like Aderant and TeamConnect. Kelvin is LLM-agnostic, with support for practically all commercially available large language models, including GPT-4, Claude, and Llama 2. Kelvin is a modern purpose-built platform specifically designed for the legal industry, with an emphasis on compliance with information security standards and data protection laws. Kelvin can run on your own physical server or private cloud, on a developer’s laptop, or in any public or hybrid cloud environment.

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